PSY 250 Week 2,
The basic approach of psychoanalytic theories is based on the inner experiences or unconscious experiences which we have in our daily lives. They proponent’s of psychoanalytic theories emphasize that these unconscious experiences are not without reasons. There are some inner forces that are working to direct our behaviors in some direction. Freud was the main proponent of psychoanalytic approach. The neo-Freudians such as Jung, Adler , Erikson and Horney have also major contributions.
Freud’s theory of personality
Sigmund Freud is a founder of this approach. His work has profound effects on many disciplines including psychology, sociology, anthropology, art and literature. According to Freud the mind is divided into two parts; conscious mind that includes everything of which we are aware of and unconscious mind that is an epitome of feelings, thoughts, memories and urges that our outside of our conscious awareness. Most of these things in unconscious mind are unpleasant or painful. He divided the personality into three elements in his theory of personality; id, ego and super ego.
Id : Id is present from birth. It’s completely unconscious and operates on pleasure principle. It needs immediate satisfaction of its impulses and desires which if not satisfied create tension and pain. It’s very important in the early infant life. It operates through primary process which involves creating a mental image of the required object to satisfy its need. For example if the infant is hungry or thirsty, id makes sure that infant gets immediate gratification. Sometimes immediate gratification is not possible so id use primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object.