OPS 571 Week 4 Project Planning Structures
Project Planning Structures
Projects have different structures. A pure project structure uses a self-contained team to work on a project full time, and the project manager has full authority over the entire project (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). Secondly, a functional project coincides with the functional division of the company. Therefore, it is very likely that a team member will work on several projects at any given time (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). Finally, the project can be set-up as a matrix project. It is a blend of both the functional and pure project structures. The project manager is held responsible for the completion of the project, and upon completion, the project team will most likely have another job in the queue (Jacobs & Chase, 2011). According to Jacobs & Chase (2011), the ability to plan, direct, and control resources define the roles of project management. For example, people, equipment and material to meet the technical, cost, and time constraints of the project. All in all, there are many different approaches and processes of project management. However, most are illustrated by the traditional process of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing.
The Development Phase
Project management has several phases in order to ensure that the project is successful. The vitality of each stage is pertinent, because if one fails it can compromise the objectives of the company. The development phase can be tied into the planning process because, after all the planning and designing, the project management team is ready to submit a sample output for review. In essence, it is an assembly process (business processes, software, product, etc.) in terms of an output. Also, components are tested for accuracy. The contractors are called upon to verify and ensure the project definition is on task and in agreement with all influencers. The resources needed for the project are also put in place because the project will not push through if there are insufficient resources. Therefore, the company should ensure that the suppliers have the necessary resources available and are reliable until the completion of the project (Jacobs, 2010). Usually, inaccuracy or tardiness from suppliers affects the time completion of most projects; therefore, the personnel(s) responsible should ensure that all the resources are readily accessible in order to save on time. In terms of outcome, providing the necessary updates to managers will assist them in supervising the progress of the project until its termination.
The Implementation Phase
The implementation phase, also known as the “doing” stage is part of the execution process. At this point, the project is set into action. According to Taylor (2006), “the project plan is the road map of how the project should progress; the implementation phase is where the plan is turned into reality” (p.237). The principal objective of this stage is to introduce to the target audience and train any end users. Now, outsiders get a glimpse into the project; thus the team has to keep the momentum, and monitor and control the service or product. There are many factors that come together to make the end results obtainable as planned. Depending on the project type, the executional outlines may vary according to the needs of the project. For example, a multi-release development may have multiple implementations.
A clear structure provides a framework to ensure consistency, definition, and the plan is adequately communicated and approved. In a perfect world, all things would equal perfectly and run smoothly as planned. However, in reality, the team tries to reach perfection through Gantt charts or other Microsoft software to monitor and progress in the project management lifestyle. Strict guidelines and monitors placed on the project, people, resources, and timing maintains the end results previously set by the initial plan. Monitoring activities include “data collecting, data analyzing, and information reporting” (Taylor, 2006, p.243). The project